If you want to learn more…

About definitions:

Arieff, A. J., & Rotman, D. B. (1942). One hundred cases of indecent exposure. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease96(5), 523-528.

Barnett, O., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2005). Children sexual abuse. In: Barnett, O., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (Ed.), Family violence across the lifespan: An introduction (pp. 94-149). Los Angeles, United States of America: Sage Publications, Inc.

Baumgartner, S. E., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2010). Unwanted online sexual solicitation and risky sexual online behavior across the lifespan. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 439-447.

Craven, S., Brown, S., & Gilchrist, E. (2006). Sexual grooming of children: Review of literature and theoretical considerations. Journal of Sexual Aggression12(3), 287-299.

Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K. J., & Wolak, J. (2000). Online victimization: A report on the nation’s youth (6-00-020). Alexandria, VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

Gámez, M., de Santisteban, P., & Resett, S. A. (2017). Sexting among Spanish adolescents: Prevalence and personality profiles. Psicothema, 29 (1), 29-34.

Gillespie, A. A. (2013). Adolescents, sexting and human rights. Human Rights Law Review, 13(4), 623-643.

Haugaard, J. J. (2000). The challenge of defining child sexual abuse. American Psychologist, 55(9), 1036.

Mishna, F., McLuckie, A., & Saini, M. (2009). Real-world dangers in an online reality: A qualitative study examining online relationships and cyber abuse. Social Work Research, 33(2), 107-118.

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics129(1), 13-20.

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2001). Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth. Jama285(23), 3011-3014.

Montiel, I. & Pereda, N. (2017). Victimización sexual de menores: Aproximación teórica y estado actual de la investigación. In: J. M. Tamarit (Ed.), La victimización sexual de menores de edad y las respuesta del sistema de justicia penal (pp.1-30). Madrid, España: EDISOFER.

Montiel, I., Carbonell, E., & Pereda, N. (2016). Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect52, 123-134.

Ringrose, J., Gill, R., Livingstone, S., & Harvey, L. (2012). A qualitative study of children, young people and ‘sexting’: A report prepared for the NSPCC. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. London, UK.

Wachs, S., Wolf, K. D., & Pan, C. C. (2012). Cybergrooming: Risk factors, coping strategies and associations with cyberbullying. Psicothema, 24(4), 628-633.

Ybarra, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: Associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S31-S41.


About prevalence:

References of European studies conducted with children and adolescents:

Aebi, M., Landolt, M., Mueller-Pfeiffer, C., Schyder, U., Maier, T., & Mohler-Kuo, M. (2015). Testing the ‘‘sexually abused-abuser hypothesis’’ in adolescents: A population-based study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 2189-2199.

Indias, S., & De Paúl, J. (2017). Lifetime victimization among Spanish adolescents. Psicothema, 29(3), 378-383.

Játiva, R., & Cerezo, M. A. (2014). The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in asample of adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 1180-1190.

Pereda, N., Abad, J., & Guilera, G. (2016). Lifetime prevalence and characteristics of child sexual victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. Journal of Sexual Abuse, 25(2), 142-158.

Pereda, N., Guilera, G., & Abad, J. (2014). Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish children and youth: Results from a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 640-649.

Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, B., & Fisher, H. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: Findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 801-813.


References of European studies conducted with adults:

Bogolyubova, O., Skochilov, R., & Symkalo, L. (2015). Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(7), 1153-1167.

Cater, A., Adershed, A. K., & Andershed, H. (2014). Youth victimization in Sweden: Prevalence, characteristicsand relation to mental health and behavioral problems in young adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 1290-1302.

Mossige, S., & Huang, L. (2017). Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects. PLoS ONE, 12(12), e0189637.


References of systematic reviews:

Barth, J., Bermetz, L., Heim, E., Trelle, S., & Tonia, T. (2013). The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 58(3), 469-483.

Pereda, N., Guilera, G., Forns, M., & Gómez-Benito, J. (2009). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 328-338.

Stoltenborgh, M., van IJzendoorn, M., Euser, E., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. (2011). A global perspective on child sexual abuse: Meta-analysis of prevalence around the world. Child Maltreatment, 16(2) 79-101.


About indicators:

Barnett, O., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2005). Children sexual abuse. In: Barnett, O., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (Ed.), Family violence across the lifespan: An introduction (pp. 94-149). Los Angeles, United States of America: Sage Publications, Inc.

Beitchman, J .H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., DaCosta, G. A., & Akman, D. (1991). A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse Neglect, 15, 537-556.

Cantón-Cortés, D., & Cortés, M. R. (2015). Consecuencias del abuso sexual infantile. Una revisión de las variables intervinientes. Anales de Psicología31(2), 552-561.

Finkelhor, D. (1995). The victimization of children: A developmental perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65 (2), 177-193.

Hébert, M., Tremblay, C., Parent, N., Daignault, I. V. & Piché, C. (2006). Correlates of behavioral outcomes in sexually abused children. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 287-299.

Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Meyer Williams, L., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 164-180.

Maikovich-Fong, A. K., & Jaffee, S. R. (2010). Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims’ emotional and behavioral problems: Findings from a national sample of youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(6), 429-437.

Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence25(1), 53-63.

Pereda, N. (2009). Consecuencias psicológicas iniciales del abuso sexual infantil. Papeles del Psicólogo30(2), 135-144.

Pereda, N. (2010). Consecuencias psicológicas a largo plazo del abuso sexual infantil. Papeles del Psicólogo31(2), 191-201.

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